Most people think that there are just two types of diabetes, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes is actually a group of several different diseases, including:


This is a reversible condition caused by elevated blood sugar that is not quite high enough to be considered diabetic. Millions of Americans fit in this category of being pre-diabetic. They can avoid type 2 diabetes by making certain lifestyle changes, including eating healthy whole foods in a balanced diet, being more active through regular exercise and maintaining a healthy body weight. Diabetes is a preventable disease and one that can easily be avoided by taking just a few precautions.

Type 1 Diabetes

This is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin, the hormone necessary for regulating your blood sugar. People are typically born with type 1 diabetes, and most people consider type 1 diabetes a more serious condition than type 2 diabetes, which is also known as late-onset or adult-onset diabetes because most people contract it later in life.

Type 2 Diabetes

This is also a chronic condition that affects how your body processes glucose or blood sugar. Also called noninsulin-dependent diabetes, type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes glucose (sugar), an important source of fuel for your body. A person with type 2 diabetes either resists the effects of insulin, the hormone that regulates movement of sugar into your cells, or you don’t produce enough insulin to maintain normal blood sugar levels.

Though it has traditionally been more common in adults, type 2 diabetes has increasingly affected children in more recent years due to increases in childhood obesity. While there is no known cure for type 2 diabetes, you can manage your condition by eating healthy, exercising regularly and maintaining a healthy body weight. If you cannot manage your blood sugar well with diet and exercise, you may need diabetes medications or insulin therapy if your condition is more serious.

Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly over many years. You can have type 2 diabetes for years and not know it. Common symptoms include:

  • Increased thirst and urination. Excess sugar in your bloodstream causes fluid to be pulled from your tissues, which leaves you feeling thirsty. As a result, you may drink more water and other fluids and urinate more frequently than usual.
  • Increased hunger. When you don’t have enough insulin to deliver glucose to your cells, your muscles and vital organs can become depleted of energy, which then triggers intense hunger pangs.
  • Weight loss. Even is you are eating more than usual to ease your hunger, you may also be losing weight. Unable to metabolize glucose, your body will use any alternative stored fuels from fat and muscle. You will lose calories as you release excess glucose in your urine.
  • Fatigue. When your cells are deprived of glucose for energy production, you can become tired and irritable. You can feel like you haven’t slept even after eight hours of sleeping.
  • Blurred vision. If your blood sugar is too high, fluid may be lost from the lenses of your eyes, which can affect your ability to focus and see things clearly.
  • Slow-healing sores and frequent infections. Type 2 diabetes can affect your ability to heal from cuts, abrasions and sores and resist various types of infections.
  • Areas of darkened skin. Some people with type 2 diabetes develop patches of darker skin in the folds and creases of their bodies. We see these most often in the armpits and neck. This condition, which is called acanthosis nigricans, is thought to be a sign of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.

Gestational Diabetes

This type of diabetes is an atypical form of high blood sugar that only affects pregnant women. Women with gestational diabetes have a higher risk for type 2 diabetes, even if their gestational diabetes resolves by itself after they deliver their babies. Gestational diabetes is a complication that can have a negative affect on your pregnancy and your baby’s health.

Controlling Gestational Diabetes

Women who are expecting babies can actually help control their gestational diabetes by eating healthier, exercising regularly and taking medication, if needed. By controlling your blood sugar, you can prevent a difficult birth. You can also keep yourself and your baby healthy. With gestational diabetes, your blood sugar usually returns to normal after delivery. But once you’ve had gestational diabetes, you’re at greater risk for type 2 diabetes. By working closely with your healthcare team to monitor and manage your blood sugar, you’ll have a better quality of life.

Diabetes Symptoms

For most women, gestational diabetes doesn’t cause noticeable symptoms. With other types of diabetes, however, symptoms often include increased thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, extreme hunger, blurred vision, slow-healing sores and frequent infections in both major types of diabetes. However, you should note that in type 1 diabetes, symptoms typically come on more quickly and are more severe.

Discover leading-edge endocrinology for diabetes, hormones and thyroid problems. Call 713-797-9191 or use our Request an Appointment form. We welcome patients from Houston, West University, Bellaire, River Oaks, Sugar Land and surrounding areas.


Dr. Bhagia was thoughtful and compassionate; excellent bedside manner. She really listened to me and explained my thyroid issues clearly. My visit was relatively quick and the staff was efficient and personable.

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